THE TESTING OF ENTREPRENEUR INTENTION MODEL OF SMK STUDENTS IN SPECIAL REGION OF YOGYAKARTA: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Hisrich et al explained entrepreneurship behavior was an intentional behavior, depended on the market opportunity, entering the new market, and offering new products. Entrepreneurship intention had the role to encourage individuals to do entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship intention was influenced by attitude or desirable perception conceptually; those were entrepreneurship attitude and behavior control/feasible (Hisrich et al., 2008). That entrepreneurship behavior concept was in accordance with theory of planned behavior. Desirable perception, that was entrepreneurship attitude in Theory of Planned Behavior, was the attitude component toward behavior, and behavior control (feasible) was the perception behavior control.
This research developed the theoretical model of entrepreneurship intention based on the concept of modified theory of planned behavior developed by Azjen from theory of planned behavior. The similar research about entrepreneurship intention had been done by several previous researchers with different perspectives. The research done by Kristiansen & Indarti, Taormina & Lao, Ramayah & Harun, Segal et al., Zhao et al, Shook & Bratianu, Li, Linan & Santos, Zhao et al, Barbosa et al,, Hmieleski & Corbett, Raijman, and Fini et al used the same concept, but was not done comprehensively yet and still minimal to consider the tendency variable to take risk as part of the aspect of entrepreneurship personality in accordance with the concept. Hofstede identified four prominent characteristics in Asian culture included Indonesia, one of them was uncertainty avoidance that was in contrast with the tendency to take risk.
Entrepreneurship knowledge explained individual intention to do entrepreneurship that was influenced by attitude or desirable perception at the form of entrepreneurship attitude and behavior control (feasible). Conceptually, behavior was determined by attitude factor on behavior, subjective norm, and behavioral control. Commonly, intention antecedent factor could be revealed through Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); those were the conviction or behavioral attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control. The intention formation could be explained with the planned behavioral theory that assumed that humans always had purpose in behavior (Fisbein &Ajzen, 1975). This theory mentioned that intention was the function of three basic determinants; those were behavioral attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral control. Commonly, it could be said that the better the attitude and subjective norm toward behavior, the bigger the behavioral control. So the intention to behave was stronger. On the contrary, intention, was regarded as one determinant variable for the real behavior; it meant, the stronger the intention to behave, the bigger the success of the behavioral prediction or the purpose of that behavior to happen.
Attitude was one of the components that was used to explain behavior in Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Behavioral attitude was the basic of intention formation. Attitude toward behavior consists of two main aspects; those were the individual conviction that was performing or not performing certain behavior would cause certain results, and was individual knowledge aspect about attitude object could also be individual opinion that must not be in accordance with reality. The more positive the individual conviction about the result of an attitude object was, the more positive the individual attitude toward the attitude object was, and vice versa. Individual who had positive attitude toward entrepreneurship would have positive conviction and evaluation toward entrepreneurship, so he tended to behave in accordance with entrepreneurship context. Entrepreneurship attitude would form individuals who were brave to face obstacles in business world and able to tolerate risk forms that would be faced in business. Based on meta-analysis in sampling error measurement, the positive correlation between entrepreneurship attitude and entrepreneurship intention was 0.195. comments

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